It was designed along the lines of the Italian torpedo boats of that time, but due to its size and speed of 34.5 knots, the class is considered a light destroyer, or destroyer … Before the end of the war, one ship, Oriani had German Seetakt radar and additional 20mm cannon. General appearance of the Soldati class. There are specific reasons for this, one being the particular territorial situation of Italy in the Mediterranean. The Grecale survived the conflict, serving until 1964. Covering all major warship classes of the Second World War mainly looking at their intended pre-war role and what missions they actually performed. These included full triple 533mm torpedo mountings, 40mm guns replaced by greater numbers of 20mm ones, The after torpedo tubes were replaced by 37mm guns. In WW2/WW1 they would have been Cruiser classes. The last wartime design studied by Italy, of which 9 were laid down and none completed, was the Commandante Medaglie d’Oro. Engines and armament, as completed, were unchanged from the Dardos, but a later version of the 120mm gun was used, the O.T.O. The new leader of Italy, Benito Mussolini, combined an authoritarian approach to … They were a modern form of the earlier exploratori - large destroyer - type of ship, displacing 2,650 tonnes[2] and were a response to the French Jaguar and Guépard classes. Grecale in 1942, rear view – Associazione Venus. Italian destroyers were to pay a high price for these oversights, but they fought bravely and doggedly. There were 19 ships built in this class up to 1943, along with along with 11 other classes and the fact that there were 2 batches of this ship class that had minor differences. [12], After the disappointments of the Dardo and Folgore classes, the Maestrale development was a largely successful attempt to eliminate faults. In the 1880-90s already, Italy produced a serie of “torpedo cruisers” that were in a sense, precursors of destroyers. Eritrea. The Oriani was transferred to France after the war, renamed D’Estaing, and removed from the lists in 1954. The Aquila were sold to Romania and Spain, the others participated actively in WW2. Aquila (a reference to the Roman Eagle) was launched in July 1916 and fought during WW1 whereas Falco (another bird of prey adulated by the ancient Romans) was delayed and launched after the war in August 1919. Seven modified Soldati class were ordered in 1940 and laid down in late 1940–41. Turbine sacrificed her rear torpedo tube bank for two 37mm/54 AA guns. In 1942–43, the remaining ship in the class had its four beam four inch guns removed and its anti-aircraft weaponry was strengthened to eight 20 millimetre machine guns and depth charge capacity was also increased. Italian destroyer designs followed differing design paths. The Italian rescue ships had formed a column, led by one destroyer and followed by the heavy cruisers Zara and Fiume, which were then followed by the three remaining destroyers. Curtatone was sunk by a mine near Athens on 20 May 1941, but Monzambano survived the war and was BU in 1951. [14], The four Orianis operated as fleet escorts for much of the war, being present at the battles of Calabria and Matapan, two being sunk at the latter action. One was captured by the Germans and served with them as TA44. Italian destroyers were usually organised into Squadriglie (Destroyer Squadrons) of four ships, same class. Apart from Nicolo Zeno, scuttled in 1943, all these ships were sunk in operations. German Sperrbrecher 27 WW2 1:1800 FUD $ 13.50. Truck Transport Italian Army Afrika Korps Armored Fighting Vehicle Roman History Ww2 Tanks French Army Panzer. In 1941, they received between 6 and 12 AA 20 mm cannons, 4 additional ASW mortars, and for some, a 120 mm flare cannon. The fact is, with the fall of France, no Italian Destroyer had ever to fight its French opponents. Jeep of a two-star general is parked to the right. Specifications Displacement 1,900 t. standard -2,580 t. Full Load Dimensions 109.30 m long, 11 m wide, 3.40 m draft Machines 2 propellers, 2 Parsons turbines, 8 Tosi boilers, 50,000 hp. Despite the fact the concept of torpedo boat was arguably obsolete in 1940, the Italians sticked to it and was probably the only Nation to rely on them so heavily. But like other navies the Regia Marina ventured into torpedo boats early on, also puchasing Thornycroft, Yarrow and Schichau models in the 1880-90s. The later ships were primarily employed as fleet escorts, but not exclusively so. First, a classic design in the 1920s derived from the 1921 Palestro class. Ww2 Pictures Military Pictures Truck Transport Italian Army Tank Destroyer Ww2 Tanks Battle Tank Tank Design Military Weapons. And that was a force of about 67 ships, which is still numerically important. They were all sunk in combat, except the Cascino and Montanari, scuttled in 1943 and 1944. Italian TB Calatafimi, which boldly attacked French Cruisers during operation Vado. [13], These four ships were commissioned between July and December 1937. Soviet navy's destroyers were divided between the old WW1-era Novik type destroyers, the italian designed 1936 Gnevnyi class and the following proper Soviet classes like the Ognevoi which mirrored the American Gearing and left the fundations for the postwar Skoriy class. Tank destroyers & SPGs. Camouflaged Monzanbano during the war – kit box art from 13 June – Italian destroyer Strale sinks British submarine HMS Odin off Taranto. From 1930 (Freccia class), Italian designs were strikingly different, being lighter, shorter, with a raked single funnel, twin turrets, simplified superstructure, whereas French designs were more conservative, if not retrograde in comparison, like Royal Navy models, with single shielded guns in superfiring positions, tall superstructures and three stacks. Luca Tarigo, Navigatori class prewar, showing its straight prow, later rebuilt as a clipper one. The third issue covers WW1 armored vehicles — Hotchkiss Htk46 and Schneider CA and CD in Italian Service. Reveal hidden contents Without venturing into the realm of more modern guided missile warships, the San Giorgio-class would become the most advanced conventional gunship destroyers in the Italian Naval tech tree. The Indomito class, which fixed the look of Italian destroyers prior WW1 and up to 1919 inaugurated a raised forecastle, heavier 4.7 in (120 mm) guns (in addition to the 3in/40), turbines and better boilers for a much faster speed of 35 knots (vs 28 with VTE engines on previous generations). At the start of World War II, Italian destroyers (Italian: caccia-torpedinieri) were a mix of warships dating from old, World War I designs up to some of the most modern of their type in the world. Specifications Displacement: 1,070 t. standard -1 670 t. Full Load Dimensions: 92.20 m long, 9.2 m wide, 3 m draft Propulsion: 2 shafts, 2 Parsons turbines, 3 Thornycroft boilers, 40,000 hp. As seen above, Italy ventured, like the French Navy and with the same tonnage limitations from the Washington treaty, both on large flotilla leaders and more nimble, 1000 tonnes regular destroyers. The Italian Navy played an important role for the Axis powers in the Mediterranean Theater during the early part of World War 2 - but faltered later in the conflict. They displaced 1,625 tonnes,[2] with four 120mm guns and six 533 mm torpedo tubes. They were successful units, robust, well armed and very stable. Take command of a meticulously reconstructed Fletcher-class destroyer and lead your crew against nazi U … Most were camouflaged with typical angular pattern of black spots on blue waves and light grey background. A wide variety of these tanks were derived chiefly from the standard medium tank chassis, and the light tank L6 as well. The Sella were based at the island of Leros, in the Dodecanese. These large fleet destroyers were designed and built for one purpose: To counter the heavy French destroyers of the Jaguar-type class leaders. In 1938, they were given additional 13.2 mm Breda (.5 cal) heavy machine guns and in 1943, Augusto Riboty (Mirabello class) received additional 20 mm guns instead of four 102 mm guns. They were based at Taranto and also took part in the Battle of Calabria. At the Italian declaration of war in June 1940, the Regia Marina's destroyer force was a mix of outdated ships of World War I design and larger numbers of modern designs. On November 9, 1941 an Italian convoy to Lybia escorted by several destroyers is intercepted during night by radar-equipped Force K under the command of Admiral Agnew (Cruisers Aurora and Penelope and destroyers Lance and Lively): Destroyer Fulmine was sunk immediately, Grecale was damaged and there was a slaughter of Italian cargoes; destroyer … One of the ship's features was 8 main battery guns placed in 4 twin mounts. The Italians used Thornycroft models built in Italy, of 380 and 450 mm. Four of the eight guns were mounted along the ships' sides, reducing a broadside to six. Their main weaknesses were lack of anti-aircraft on their ships, so a full naval invasion would be stopped by French Air Force. Weaponry, compared to the earlier exploratori was reduced to six 120mm in three twin turrets, one of which was amidships. At the end of the 1920s, a design emerged (Freccia class) that was the basis for improvement and standardisation. In operations, these destroyers proved their effectiveness, being able to withstand many hits without much damage, but very vulnerable to air attacks, because, as for the other Italian destroyers, they were given an initial too weak AA in comparison with of that of the Germans or allies. Naval Forces & Industry news Naval and Maritime Exhibitions News Focus - Analysis - Photo report Naval Forces Vessels & Equipmen... Titan LNG charters in 5,200 cu.m LNG bunkering vessel, Sailors hear tale of gallantry at airport, Beijing warns off US warship from South China Sea islands, CNO Asks Fleet for Moment of Silence in Honor of USS Indianapolis 75th Anniversary, SuperTermoli (ST) 60 MMI - The successor of Hellenic Navy UDC's ST60 fast interceptor. So it was the Soldati class, divided into two groups, one with 12 ships and one with 7. Our Archive section covers the history of early requirements for the Soviet heavy (large) tank. It should be noted that many Italian DDs ended in German hands, as the Kriegsmarine desperately needed them for local operations. Indeed a single destroyer division of 4 ships was able to carry some 1,200 troops and equipment in one night. Nov 30, 2020 - Explore a.j. It was the Comandanti Medaglie d’Oro class, which was characterized mainly by increased dimensions (120 meters long by 12.3 wide and 2900 tons at full load), a much better AA armament (13 x 37 mm shielded guns), and also main guns of 135 mm instead of 120 mm, in single turrets, and a reinforced hull. However in operation, this speed was rarely reached. Author’s illustration of the Alfieri, camouflaged in wartime, Oriani class. [3], All three were part of the Italian Red Sea Flotilla at the start of Italy's war in June 1940, where they were employed to lay mine fields and to disrupt British convoys, without any success. These were the Turbine, Aquilone, Borea, Espero, Euro, Nembo, Ostro, and Zeffiro. Despite this, Carlo Mirabello was mined and sank off the Greek coast near Cape Dukato in 1941. Wreck of WW2 Italian destroyer found under the Mediterranean Sea waters A new discovery has been done by Paul G. Allen and his research team on boarding of R/V Petrel, his new research vessel outfitted with the latest deep sea exploration technology. The machinery remained substantially unchanged and, consequentially, the Sauros were no more reliable. Italian semovente L6/40 - 47/32 gun Mais. In 1941, in the light of the first engagements, the Admiralty worked on a new type of destroyers intended to enter into service in 1943. Audace, the first of this name was sunk in 1916. [8], The twelve Navigatoris were commissioned between December 1929 and May 1931. Type-wise however, the French had a clear advantage with their numerous, large destroyers leaders. The three Leone (also Pantera, Tigre) received a few 13.2 mm heavy machine gun twin mounts and were used actively during the conflict. Aug 28, 2017 - Explore Daniel Borg's board "Italian World War II tanks" on Pinterest. WW2 Italian Destroyers; WW2 Italian Submarines; Mare Nostrum “Mare Nostrum”: This ancient motto known to the Greeks Byzantines and Turks was the embodiment of the a navy dreamed by Mussolini. The 4 Folgore (Baleno, Fumine, Lampo, Folgore), launched in 1931 and completed the following year, were virtually identical to the Freccia, except that their width was further reduced to reach a greater speed, to the detriment of autonomy (less space for oil tanks), while even aggravating the defects of Freccia and instability. And these figures suffered in wartime after heavy use. 4 June 1944. A very large destroyer in comparison with her contemporaries, officially classified as a "light scout" for a long time. Three ships received two single 37mm anti-aircraft guns, which replaced the single 120mm (where installed) and the aft torpedo tube mountings. These ships were reclassified as torpedo boats from 1921 but has been discarded well before the second world war. In one ship, a torpedo mounting was replaced by two 37mm guns. 23 June –Italian submarine Torricelli sinks British destroyer HMS Khartoum off Eritrea. Some of these ships fought against amazing odds, like Luca Tarigo of the Navigatori class, duelling against four DDs at once. The remaining two were stationed in the Aegean for much of the war. [2] As completed, these ships had a single 120 millimetre (4.7 inch) gun, four 533 millimetre (21 inch) torpedo tubes, two 40 millimetre and two 13.2 millimetre guns. The two ships of 1916 were designed as flotilla leaders. Castelfidardo was Captured by the at Pireus in September 1943 by the Germans and was also renamed TA16, sunk by allied aircraft in June 1944 (also in the Aegean). The Palestro were started first, in 1917, but were only completed after the war because of labor and materials shortages, at the Orlando shipyard in Livorno. A new style of bridge layout and structure was also introduced. On 8 September 1923, seven of the ships ran aground off the coast of California in the U.S. Navy's worst ever peacetime disaster.. One ship, Oriani, survived to serve with the Allies and was subsequently transferred to France and renamed D'Estaing. They were also sensitive to the blades from the front and their bow was modified, in the “clipper” style, passing the hull from 107 to 109 meters. Top speed: 38 knots Armament: 4 x 120 (2×2), 2 x 40, 4 x 13.2 mm AA, 6 x 533 mm (2×3) TTs Crew: 692. Many destroyers were rearmed in the interwar by the 53.3 cm (21″) Si 270/533.4 x 7.2 “M” modello. At the Italian surrender in 1943, the Germans sunk the Quintino Sella and captured Francesco Crispi, renaming her TA15. They were reclassified as destroyers by 1940. Italian destroyers carried out 535 escort missions, 301 transport missions and 132 minelaying missions (4,093 mines in all) and paid a heavy price in these contested waters, with forty-tree were sunk (on 59) until September 1943 and 15 after the Armistice of Cassibile, mostly scuttled. The destroyers of the Generali class (6 units, 1921), very close to La Masa, received two 20 mm guns and some additional Breda 13.2 mm twin machine guns. One torpedo tube mounting was replaced by two 37mm guns; 20mm cannon, a 120mm star-shell gun and depth charge throwers were also installed. In 1943, the Grecale and Maestrale were cleared of their rear torpedo tube bank, replaced by two 37 mm AA guns. The 40mm weapons were an old pattern and they were replaced by two 20mm. The destroyers of the Sirtori classes (4 ships, 1917), and La Masa (8 ships, 1917-18-19), were assigned to the same tasks. The designation "exploratori", meaning "scouts", was originally given to a class of Italian warship that were between the then current destroyers and cruisers, in terms of size and firepower. Unfortunately, when the armistice came up, none were completed. The Admiralty decided that the Oriani/Maestrale formed the best base for a new series of improved destroyers. ASW, ASuW, AA and missile strike are all in their arsenal. The quality of a ship class depends very much on what it is supposed to be doing on a given assignment. During World War II, several programmes were started to upgrade weaponry, in particular anti-aircraft weapons, but none were applied uniformly to all ships in the class. The increase in power, however, disappointed in that there was only a marginal speed improvement. Caution is needed when considering the maximum speeds of Italian warships of this period, since Italian practice was to run the trials with ships as light as possible, often without armament. They are armed for multiple threat missions. They served as escorts. I also believe that the re-purposed training ship San Giorgio might have a place in the game – perhaps as a premium or event ship. Displacement: 2 200 t. Standard -2 600 t. Fully LoaddedDimensions: 112 m x 10 m x 2 mPowerplant: 2 Parsons turbines, 8 Yarrow boilers, 50 000 hp.Top speed: 32 knotsArmament: 8 x 102mm, 2 x 40mm, 8 x 13.2mm AA, 6 x 533 mm (2×3) TTsCrew: 210. Euro joined the Allies and was subsequently sunk off Leros. Both were the largest and best German design, and were discarded in 1939. April 1 – Italian destroyer Lubiana (Former Yugoslav destroyer Ljubljana) is scuttled after it runs aground off Tunisia. [8], All of the class were based at Tobruk, north Africa, and used to lay minefields and run supplies from Italy. The ships had no radar, and these two were caught by surprise shortly afterwards by the battleships Warspite, Valiant and Barham, whose 15in gunfire at short range literally blew them apart. The Sella class (Crispi, Sella, Ricasoli, Nicotera), and Sauro class (Battsiti, Manin, Nullo, Sauro) were started in 1925-26, according to two substantially different designs. The class comprised the Calatafimi (1923), Castelfidardo (1922), Curtatone (1922) and Monzambano (1923). As completed, the anti-aircraft battery consisted of twelve machine guns. In 1941 she lost a funnel, and was taken in hands and refitted with a single 102mm/45 gun, and a modern AA comprising four single 20mm and two twin 13.2 mm HMG mounts. The Navigatori class (12 ships, 1928-29) was meteoritic. They retained essentially all the features of the Oriani, including the hull, and had enlarged superstructures, and on some, an additional 120 mm gun in a central position, standard or flare gun (15 caliber mortar instead of 50). At the time of the Tunisian campaign when allied domination became prevalent (The Battle of Skerki Bank show the loss of 1,500 soldiers in one night) and confidence in trying to defend troop transports led to transport troops directly on destroyers instead. In 1942-43, they gave up their rear torpedo tube bank for an additional battery for two 37mm cannons and three 20mm double mounts. [14], Nineteen Soldati were built in two batches; twelve commissioned between August 1938 and May 1939 and the second batch of five between February and August 1942. Crispi covered the landing of an entire Italian division on Sitia, Crete, on 28 May 1941. 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